Hello. People will be starting to come in and we need to start on time.
 Thank you all for joining us for the American Epilepsy Symposium State of the Art on Pediatric Epilepsy. And before we begin we have a few things we need to take care of, some housekeeping comments.
 Please set your cell phone and beepers to the vibrate mode during this symposium. This symposium is sponsored by the American Epilepsy Society and it is supported by an educational grant from UCB Pharma. At this time I’d like to thank the members of the faculty for their participation and my fellow co-chair, Dr. Ajay Gupta. It is the policy of the American Epilepsy Society that all faculty participating in CME activities disclose to the program audience any real or apparent conflicts of interest. And these are included in your syllabus and will be presented before the specific talks. Please make sure you evaluate the program online and this is needs to be done hopefully as soon as possible but certainly by January 31, 2007, if you want to get your CME credit. For those of you who have taken the pretest, thank you very much. These are important to evaluate and we hope you take the post-tests. These are, as I mentioned, important to evaluate the program and help the organization for future programs. In this symposium we will have question and answer session at the end of the symposium, not at the end of the talks. The cards, question cards, are at the end of your syllabus handout. After each talk please write the questions and pass them to the end of the aisle or to the center and somebody will pick them up. We’ll start first by a few slides that kind of lay the ground for the symposium and we thought that it would be helpful to have some definitions in order so that we all can know what we are talking about.
 And first the terms used for electrical status in sleep first was by the Tassinari group in 1971. and the term used was subclinical status epilepticus induced by sleep. And in 1977 the same group used the term electrical status epilepticus in sleep. And, finally, the last term is continuous spike and wave during slow wave sleep. And this is the term that has kind of stuck, although the others sometimes are used. And by definition this is an EEG finding rather than an epilepsy syndrome. We’ll define the epilepsy syndrome in the next slide. It basically it is spike waves that—spike waves that constitutes more than 85% of during sleep time and can be observed in multiple epilepsy syndromes. There have been a number of very good reviews by many members of, I’m sure, the audience and of the faculty, and actually by myself. There are two of these included in this slide, one by Van Bogaert by the French group who also made some recommendations regarding definition and therapy and by Holmes regarding the pathophysiology. And these are included in this slide.
 What are the definitions of the different syndromes that are associated with this EEG phenomena? Epilepsy with continuous spike waves, according to the International League, is a condition that results from the association of various seizure types, partial or generalized occurring during sleep and atypical absences during wakefulness. And despite the usually benign course and the evolution of the seizures, prognosis is guarded due to the presence of neuropsychology disorders. Landau-Kleffner syndrome is defined as a childhood disorder in which acquired aphasia, multiple ... spikes, and spike and wave discharges are associated and continuous spike wave in slow wave sleep is present in about 80% of these patients.
 What is the relationship of these syndromes to each other and to other syndromes? This is a slide by Chahine and myself from an article that appeared Epileptic Disorders this month. And you can see here that we have put the epileptic encephalopathies in the big white circle and then Landau-Kleffner syndrome is here, epilepsy with continuous spike waves in slow wave sleep is here. And there are—there is overlap. There are cases that are difficult to classify with features involved. Atypical benign focal childhood epilepsy or pseudo-Lennox-Gastaut syndrome which is bilateral or multifocal epilepsy with secondary synchronization and symptoms, seizure types that look like Lennox-Gastaut types but it is not Lennox-Gastaut. And, again, this is overlaps with these two syndromes. How about the benign epilepsies, benign epilepsy with central temporal spikes, and benign epilepsy with occipital paroxysms are here. Again, there is some overlap between these two syndromes. And when you have sleep activation and then encephalopathy there are atypical evolutions and these can be considered to overlap with epileptic encephalopathies. So what is the pathophysiology of these phenomena? We mentioned. What is the clinical spectrum and what are the treatment options? We have gathered a superb faculty here to talk about all these and to answer these questions including addressing the controversies.