What's Current?

Epilepsy: When the neuron's doorman allows too much in

Medical News Today - Thu, 11/19/2015 - 11:00
In epilepsy, nerve cells or neurons lose their usual rhythm, and ion channels, which have a decisive influence on their excitability, are involved.
Categories: What's Current?

When the neuron's doorman allows too much in

Science Daily - Thu, 11/19/2015 - 10:35
In epilepsy, nerve cells or neurons lose their usual rhythm, and ion channels, which have a decisive influence on their excitability, are involved. A team of researchers has now discovered a new mechanism for influencing ion channels in epilepsy. They found that spermine inside neurons dampens the neurons excitability. In epilepsy, spermine levels decrease, causing hyperexcitability. The researchers hope that their findings can be exploited to develop new therapies for epilepsies.
Categories: What's Current?

When the neuron's doorman allows too much in

Science Daily - Thu, 11/19/2015 - 10:35
In epilepsy, nerve cells or neurons lose their usual rhythm, and ion channels, which have a decisive influence on their excitability, are involved. A team of researchers has now discovered a new mechanism for influencing ion channels in epilepsy. They found that spermine inside neurons dampens the neurons excitability. In epilepsy, spermine levels decrease, causing hyperexcitability. The researchers hope that their findings can be exploited to develop new therapies for epilepsies.
Categories: What's Current?

is a genetic modifier of epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channel mutations

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/19/2015 - 00:00
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide (WHO, 2012). Over 1000 mutations identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes result in several human epilepsy syndromes (Meisler et al., 2010). Often, individuals with the same mutation can exhibit strikingly different clinical severity. This suggests that the effect of the primary mutation is influenced by other factors, which may include genetic modifiers.
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Treating epilepsy and brain traumas by neurotransmitters

Medical News Today - Tue, 11/17/2015 - 07:00
Roustem Khazipov, Head of the group of researchers from Kazan Federal University and Aix-Marseille University, "Brain activity is based on both excitatory and inhibitory actions regulated by...
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Treating epilepsy, brain traumas by neurotransmitters

Science Daily - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 11:20
Researchers conducted experiments on the hippocampus of neonatal rats and mice, quite similar to the one of a human fetus at the second half of pregnancy period. Hence it will be possible make precise identification of medicaments safe for a fetus and its brain development. The potential application of obtained results is to find its place in treating brain malfunctions, such as epilepsy, post-ischemic conditions, and brain traumas.
Categories: What's Current?

Treating epilepsy, brain traumas by neurotransmitters

Science Daily - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 11:20
Researchers conducted experiments on the hippocampus of neonatal rats and mice, quite similar to the one of a human fetus at the second half of pregnancy period. Hence it will be possible make precise identification of medicaments safe for a fetus and its brain development. The potential application of obtained results is to find its place in treating brain malfunctions, such as epilepsy, post-ischemic conditions, and brain traumas.
Categories: What's Current?

Verbal memory and verbal fluency tasks used for language localization and lateralization during magnetoencephalography

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
The first line of treatment for epilepsy is pharmacotherapy (Killgore et al., 1999). However, about 30% of patients have medically intractable epilepsy (Kwan and Brodie, 2000), in which case surgery is often considered to remove the epileptogenic zone. Surgery can eliminate or significantly decrease seizures in 50% to 90% of cases (Smith, 2001) and is most often performed in the temporal and frontal lobes.
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Efficacy and Tolerability of Adjunct Perampanel Based on Number of Antiepileptic Drugs at Baseline and Baseline Predictors of Efficacy: A Phase III Post-Hoc Analysis

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Perampanel, a first-in-class antiepileptic drug (AED), is approved in more than 40 countries, including Europe and the United States, for adjunctive treatment of partial seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures in patients aged 12 years or older with epilepsy, and in Canada for adult patients 18 years of age or older with epilepsy (FYCOMPA Summary of Product Characteristics 2012; FYCOMPA Product Monograph 2013; FYCOMPA US Prescribing Information 2015; Rektor, 2013). Perampanel is a selective, orally active, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist and has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in patients aged ≥12 years with partial seizures in 3 multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III studies, with patients taking stable doses of up to 3 approved AEDs (French et al., 2012; French et al., 2013; Krauss et al., 2012).
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Circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing pro-inflammatory cytokines in a cohort of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy patients with Hippocampal Sclerosis

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, which consists of recurrent seizures that affect 0.8-1% of the world population (Vezzani et al., 2011). Nearly 90% of patients with epilepsy are found in developing areas (Fabene et al., 2013). This higher prevalence in developing nations is attributed to an increased chance to suffer pro-epileptogenic events such as head trauma, stroke, viral infection, febrile seizures, status epilepticus occurring either in infancy or during lifetime (Herman, 2002).
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Sleep-wake pattern, chronotype and seizures in Patients with epilepsy

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Sleep is an important physiologic process that helps in the recovery of brain or physical damage. Maintaining normal sleep is necessary for physical and mental health (Chae, 2007). There is a reciprocal interaction between sleep and epilepsy; epilepsy may disrupt sleep, and sleep disorders can impair seizure control (Bazil, 2003; Hofstra and De Weerd, 2009). The prevalence of sleep disturbance was reportedly two-fold higher in epilepsy, as compared to normal control (38.6 vs. 18.0%) (De Weerd et al., 2004).
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Antiepileptic Drug Use and Epileptic Seizures in Nursing Home Residents in the Province of Pavia, Italy: A Reappraisal 12 Years After a First Survey

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
The prevalence of epilepsy in nursing home elderly residents is higher than in the general population (de la Court et al., 1996, Olafsson et al., 2005; Schachter et al., 1998). The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in this setting is also greater than in community dwelling elderly people, and varies from 4 to 17% in surveys conducted in Europe and North America, with considerable differences across studies in patterns of AED use (Leppik et al., 2012; Leppik and Birnbaum, 2010; Tallis et al., 2002).
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Pharmacological Outcomes In Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: Support For Sodium Valproate

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is one of the most frequently diagnosed idiopathic generalized (genetic) epilepsy syndromes (IGES) in teenagers with a prevalence of around 18% of IGES and 5-10% of all epilepsies [1]. It is characterised by myoclonic jerks, tonic-clonic seizures and, on occasion, generalized absences [2]. JME has a slight female predominance, with a peak age of onset between 12 and 18 years. Around 30% of patients show photoparoxysmal responses on a surface electroencephalogram (EEG).
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Spatiotemporal mapping of interictal epileptiform discharges in human absence epilepsy: A MEG study

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
The recurrent spontaneous seizures typical for various forms of absence epilepsy, commonly but not exclusively seen in children between 4 and 12 years (Loiseau et al., 2002), are still classified as generalized (Berg and Plioplys, 2012), although it is questioned whether there are fundamental differences between generalized and focal types of epilepsy (Lüders et al., 2009; Seneviratne et al., 2012; van Luijtelaar et al., 2014).
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Widespread Neuronal Injury In A Model Of Cholinergic Status Epilepticus In Postnatal Day 7 Rat Pups

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Status Epilepticus (SE) is common in neonates and infants, and is associated with neuronal injury and adverse developmental outcomes. However, the role of SE in this injury is uncertain. Until now, we have lacked an animal model in which seizures result in neuronal injury in rodent models at ages below postnatal day 12 (P12) unless seizures are combined with inflammatory stressors.
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Compensatory reduction of Ca3.1 expression in thalamocortical neurons of juvenile rats of WAG/Rij model of absence epilepsy

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Absence seizure is a specific form of epilepsy, which is semiologically characterized by behavioral arrest and loss of consciousness. The absence is provoked by generalized synchronous neuronal activity, manifested on EEG as spike-wave discharges (SWD) (Crunelli and Leresche, 2002). One of the key features in SWD generation is the abnormalities in function of low voltage-activated (LVA) or T-type calcium channels (Cav3) expressed by thalamic neurons (Cheong and Shin, 2013). It was shown that the overexpression of the Cav3.1-channel isoform in mice leads to characteristic absence phenotype (Ernst et al., 2009).
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A reduced susceptibility to chemoconvulsant stimulation in adenylyl cyclase 8 knockout mice

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Two ubiquitous messengers, Ca2+ and cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), play an extremely important role in neuronal activity. Direct link between Ca2+ and cAMP signaling is essential for neuronal activity, such as neurotransmitter release, learning memory, and synaptic development (Ferguson et al., 2004). Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the synthesis of cAMP. It is known that there are nine membrane-bound mammalian ACs (AC1-9) in the brain(Defer et al., 2000). Four ACs (AC1, AC5, AC6 and AC8) are under regulation of physiological concentrations of Ca2+, providing a crucial link between the Ca2+ and cAMP-signaling pathways (Cooper et al., 1995).
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The pervasive reduction of GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition of principal neurons in the hippocampus during status epilepticus

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency characterized by a prolonged, self-sustaining seizure that can result in death or neurological sequelae. There is general agreement that the genesis and maintenance of SE is, in part, the result of rapid modifications in GABA-mediated inhibition that includes changes in the surface expression of the postsynaptic receptor population (Goodkin & Kapur, 2009).
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Anticonvulsant Efficacy of Melatonin in an Experimental Model of Hyperthermic Febrile Seizures

Epilepsy Research Journal - Tue, 11/10/2015 - 00:00
Melatonin (MT) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland that can pass through all morphophysiological barriers in the body due to its lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics which, in turn, allow it to easily infiltrate intracellular spaces and the cell nucleus (Vermeulen et al., 1993). In addition to its effects on the ophthalmic, cardiovascular, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrinological systems (Dubocovich et al., 2003), the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of MT have been investigated by several studies (Manev et al., 1996).
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Network pharmacology for antiepileptogenesis: tolerability of multitargeted drug combinations in nonepileptic vs. post-status epilepticus mice

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/09/2015 - 00:00
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases and often (∼40%) a consequence of brain insults, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke (Löscher et al., 2013). It is widely believed that there is a seizure-free, pre-epileptic state, termed the “latent period”, between brain injury and the onset of epilepsy, during which a cascade of complex brain alterations gradually mediates the process of “epileptogenesis” (Pitkänen and Engel, 2014). This latent period may offer a therapeutic window to interfere with epileptogenesis, resulting in modification or even prevention of epilepsy (Löscher and Brandt, 2010; Pitkänen and Lukasiuk, 2011).
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