Adenosine A1 receptor–mediated suppression of carbamazepine-resistant seizure-like events in human neocortical slices
The need for alternative pharmacologic strategies in treatment of epilepsies is pressing for about 30% of patients with epilepsy who do not experience satisfactory seizure control with present treatments. In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) even up to 80% of patients are pharmacoresistant, and surgical resection of the ictogenic tissue is only possible for a minority of TLE patients. In this study we investigate purinergic modulation of drug-resistant seizure-like events (SLEs) in human temporal cortex slices.Methods
Layer V/VI field potentials from a total of 77 neocortical slices from 17 pharmacoresistant patients were recorded to monitor SLEs induced by application of 8 mM [K+] and 50 μm bicuculline.Results
Activating A1 receptors with a specific agonist completely suppressed SLEs in 73% of human temporal cortex slices. In the remaining slices, incidence of SLEs was markedly reduced. Because a subportion of slices can be pharmacosensitive, we tested effects of an A1 agonist, in slices insensitive to a high dose of carbamazepine (50 μm). Also in these cases the A1 agonist was equally efficient. Moreover, ATP and adenosine blocked or modulated SLEs, an effect mediated not by P2 receptors but rather by adenosine A1 receptors.Significance
Selective activation of A1 receptors mediates a strong anticonvulsant action in human neocortical slices from pharmacoresistant patients. We propose that our human slice model of seizure-like activity is a feasible option for future studies investigating new antiepileptic drug (AED) candidates.
Expanding the spectrum of cognitive outcomes after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: A prospective study of theory of mind
Because temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can impair theory of mind (ToM), we examined the effects of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) by comparing the preoperative to postoperative ToM course with that of other cognitive functions characteristically impaired in TLE.Methods
Eighty-five patients with left (n = 39) or right (n = 46) drug-resistant TLE and an age at epilepsy onset of >12 (n = 54) or ≤12 years (n = 31) were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery; 40 healthy controls were assessed at baseline. The participants' recognition and comprehension of faux pas (FPs) or correct rejection of nonexistent FPs was assessed using the Faux Pas task; and their language, memory, and planning were, respectively, assessed using the Boston Naming, Short Story, and Tower of London tests.Results
Baseline ToM was impaired in the patients with left or right TLE in comparison with the controls, and significantly influenced by education and age at seizure onset, with more severe deficits being observed in those with less education and an age at onset of ≤12 years. After ATL, their recognition and comprehension of FPs was unchanged, whereas the rejection of nonexistent FPs improved in the patients with early seizure onset. Education, preoperative ToM, postoperative executive function, and fluid intelligence and the number of antiepileptic drugs predicted postoperative ToM. Postoperative naming and episodic memory were associated with ATL laterality and education, and planning was associated with age at seizure onset and chronological age.Significance
After ATL, the components of ToM may be unchanged or slightly improved depending on cognitive reserve and age at seizure onset, thus suggesting that ATL does not further aggravate the deficits caused by TLE. Moreover, the course of ToM is distinct from that of other cognitive functions. These findings expand the spectrum of the cognitive phenotypes associated with TLE and ATL, and offer potential elements for individual prognoses.
Long-term outcome and neuroradiologic changes after multiple hippocampal transection combined with multiple subpial transection or lesionectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy
Multiple hippocampal transection (MHT) is a surgical procedure developed to avoid postoperative memory decline. Its efficacy has been documented in only a few small series with relatively short observation periods. We prospectively evaluated the long-term seizure and cognitive outcomes of MHT combined with multiple subpial transection or lesionectomy (MHT + MST/L). Moreover, we quantitatively evaluated the structural and metabolic neuroradiologic changes after the procedure to elucidate the anatomofunctional correlates of memory preservation.Methods
Twenty-four patients underwent MHT + MST/L for treatment of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and were followed for more than 5 years. Indications for the procedure were the following: (1) verbally dominant-sided surgery in patients with a radiologically normal hippocampus or normal/near normal memory, and (2) surgery for patients with concomitant epileptic activity on the contralateral side, that is, when the surgery was considered a high risk for severe postoperative memory decline. Seizure outcome was evaluated using Engel's classification 1, 2, and 3 years after surgery, and at the last visit (LV). Three subgroups were evaluated as well: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) negative (MN), hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and normal hippocampus with extrahippocampal lesion (NHEL). The long-term cognitive outcome was followed through to LV in patients who underwent verbally dominant-sided surgery. Hippocampal volume (HV), diffusion tensor parameters (DTP), and glucose utilization (GU) were determined from MRI and fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies performed before and >6 months after surgery.Results
Whereas the rate of Engel class I as a whole was 71% at 1 year and 67% at LV, the rates in the MN, HS, and NHEL groups were 60%, 67%, and 100% at 1 year, respectively, and 70%, 56%, and 80% at LV, respectively. Memory indices after verbally dominant-sided surgery transiently declined at 1 month but recovered to and remained at the preoperative level through LV. The HV, DTP of the fornix, and GU of the temporal lobe on the treated side showed pathologic changes even when the transiently declined memory indices had recovered to the preoperative level.Significance
The long-term outcome for complex partial seizures after MHT + MST/L was comparable to that seen after anterior temporal lobectomy. The long-term cognitive outcome was favorable, even for patients with a high risk of severe postoperative memory decline. MHT + MST/L may be a treatment option for mTLE in which resective surgery carries a risk of postoperative memory decline, particularly in patients without MRI lesion. A discrepancy between the preserved memory and the pathologic neuroradiologic changes indicates the necessity for further studies including functional MRI.
Altered GABA receptor expression in brainstem nuclei and SUDEP in mice associated with epileptic encephalopathy
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia is a group of heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by reduced volume of the brainstem and cerebellum. We report two male siblings who presented with early infantile clonic seizures, and then developed infantile spasms associated with prominent isolated cerebellar hypoplasia/atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Using whole exome sequencing techniques, both were found to be compound heterozygotes for one previously reported and one novel mutation in the gene encoding mitochondrial arginyl-tRNA synthetase 2 (RARS2). Mutations in this gene have been classically described in pontocerebellar hypoplasia type six (PCH6), a phenotype characterized by early (often intractable) seizures, profound developmental delay, and progressive pontocerebellar atrophy. The electroclinical spectrum of PCH6 is broad and includes a number of seizure types: myoclonic, generalized tonic–clonic, and focal clonic seizures. Our report expands the characterization of the PCH6 disease spectrum and presents infantile spasms as an associated electroclinical phenotype.
To determine the main factors influencing metabolic changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS).Methods
We prospectively studied 114 patients with MTLE (62 female; 60 left HS; 15- to 56-year-olds) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose–positron emission tomography and correlated the results with the side of HS, structural atrophy, electroclinical features, gender, age at onset, epilepsy duration, and seizure frequency. Imaging processing was performed using statistical parametric mapping.Results
Ipsilateral hypometabolism involved temporal (mesial structures, pole, and lateral cortex) and extratemporal areas including the insula, frontal lobe, perisylvian regions, and thalamus, more extensively in right HS (RHS). A relative increase of metabolism (hypermetabolism) was found in the nonepileptic temporal lobe and in posterior areas bilaterally. Voxel-based morphometry detected unilateral hippocampus atrophy and gray matter concentration decrease in both frontal lobes, more extensively in left HS (LHS). Regardless of the structural alterations, the topography of hypometabolism correlated strongly with the extent of epileptic networks (mesial, anterior-mesiolateral, widespread mesiolateral, and bitemporal according to the ictal spread), which were larger in RHS. Notably, widespread perisylvian and bitemporal hypometabolism was found only in RHS. Mirror hypermetabolism was grossly proportional to the hypometabolic areas, coinciding partly with the default mode network. Gender-related effect was significant mainly in the contralateral frontal lobe, in which metabolism was higher in female patients. Epilepsy duration correlated with the contralateral temporal metabolism, positively in LHS and negatively in RHS. Opposite results were found with age at onset. High seizure frequency correlated negatively with the contralateral metabolism in LHS.Significance
Epileptic networks, as assessed by electroclinical correlations, appear to be the main determinant of hypometabolism in MTLE. Compensatory mechanisms reflected by a relative hypermetabolism in the nonepileptic temporal lobe and in extratemporal areas seem more efficient in LHS and in female patients, whereas long duration, late onset of epilepsy, and high seizure frequency may reduce these adaptive changes.
Abnormally enhanced glutamatergic excitation is commonly believed to mark the onset of a focal seizure. This notion, however, is not supported by firm evidence, and it will be challenged here. A general reduction of unit firing has been indeed observed in association with low-voltage fast activity at the onset of seizures recorded during presurgical intracranial monitoring in patients with focal, drug-resistant epilepsies. Moreover, focal seizures in animal models start with increased γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneuronal activity that silences principal cells. In vitro studies have shown that synchronous activation of GABAA receptors occurs at seizure onset and causes sizeable elevations in extracellular potassium, thus facilitating neuronal recruitment and seizure progression. A paradoxical involvement of GABAergic networks is required for the initiation of focal seizures characterized by low-voltage fast activity, which represents the most common seizure-onset pattern in focal epilepsies.