What's Current?

Short Communication: Flourishing Among Adolescents with Epilepsy: Correlates and Comparison to Peers

Epilepsy Research Journal - Fri, 08/07/2015 - 00:00
Epilepsy impacts approximately 1% of children and adolescents in the United States (US; Russ et al., 2012). Adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) are at risk for a number of negative psychosocial outcomes. AWE experience increased rates of psychological disorders, such as depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Rodenburg et al., 2005a; Russ et al., 2012), and approximately 40% of AWE have been diagnosed with a mental health condition (Wagner, Wilson et al., 2015).
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Morphometric MRI analysis enhances visualization of cortical tubers in tuberous sclerosis

Epilepsy Research Journal - Fri, 08/07/2015 - 00:00
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are highly epileptogenic lesions frequently accounting for pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsy (Fauser et al., 2006). Although MRI techniques have improved significantly over the past years, many FCD still remain undetected by conventional MRI visual analysis. About 10–20% of cases with FCD type II according to the classification of Palmini and Lüders and the recent classification proposal of Blümcke and colleagues (Palmini et al., 2004; Blümcke et al., 2011) are reported to be MRI-negative by conventional visual analysis (Wagner et al., 2011).
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Phosphatase inhibition prevents the activity-dependent trafficking of GABAA receptors during status epilepticus in the young animal

Epilepsia - Thu, 08/06/2015 - 10:09
Summary Objectives

To determine if the activity-dependent trafficking of γ2 subunit–containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) that has been observed in older animals and posited to contribute to benzodiazepine pharmacoresistance during status epilepticus (SE) is age-dependent, and to evaluate whether blockade of protein phosphatases can inhibit or reverse the activity-dependent plasticity of these receptors.


The efficacy and potency of diazepam 0.2–10 mg/kg administered 3 or 60 min after the onset of a lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizure in postnatal day 15–16 rats was evaluated using video–electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. The surface expression of γ2 subunit–containing GABAARs was assessed using a biotinylation assay, and GABAAR-mediated miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) were recorded using whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques from dentate granule cells in hippocampal slices acutely obtained 60 min after seizure onset (SE-treated). The effect of the protein phosphatase inhibitors FK506 and okadaic acid (OA) on the surface expression of these receptors was determined in organotypic slice cultures exposed to high potassium and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) or in SE-treated slices.


Diazepam terminated seizures of 3 min but not 60 min duration, even at the highest dose. In the SE-treated slices, the surface expression of γ2 subunit–containing GABAARs was reduced and the amplitude of the mIPSCs was diminished. Inhibition of protein phosphatases prevented the activity-induced reduction of the γ2 subunit–containing GABAARs in organotypic slice cultures. Furthermore, treatment of SE-treated slices with FK506 or OA restored the surface expression of the γ2 subunit–containing GABAARs and the mIPSC amplitude.


This study demonstrates that the plasticity of γ2 subunit–containing GABAARs associated with the development of benzodiazepine resistance in young and adult animals is similar. The findings of this study suggest that the mechanisms regulating the activity-dependent trafficking of GABAARs during SE can be targeted to develop novel adjunctive therapy for the treatment of benzodiazepine-refractory SE.

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Missense mutations in sodium channel and predispose children to encephalopathy with severe febrile seizures

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 08/06/2015 - 00:00
During the acute phase of febrile diseases, some children develop repetitive or prolonged seizures, followed by severe impairment of consciousness. Several distinct syndromes have been described and characterized: fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-aged children (FIRES), idiopathic hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (IHHS), and acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD). As a generic term to encompass these conditions, Nabbout proposed the term acute encephalopathy with inflammation-mediated status epilepticus (AEIMSE) (Nabbout et al., 2011).
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