What's Current?

Treating epilepsy, brain traumas by neurotransmitters

Science Daily - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 11:20
Researchers conducted experiments on the hippocampus of neonatal rats and mice, quite similar to the one of a human fetus at the second half of pregnancy period. Hence it will be possible make precise identification of medicaments safe for a fetus and its brain development. The potential application of obtained results is to find its place in treating brain malfunctions, such as epilepsy, post-ischemic conditions, and brain traumas.
Categories: What's Current?

Verbal memory and verbal fluency tasks used for language localization and lateralization during magnetoencephalography

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
The first line of treatment for epilepsy is pharmacotherapy (Killgore et al., 1999). However, about 30% of patients have medically intractable epilepsy (Kwan and Brodie, 2000), in which case surgery is often considered to remove the epileptogenic zone. Surgery can eliminate or significantly decrease seizures in 50% to 90% of cases (Smith, 2001) and is most often performed in the temporal and frontal lobes.
Categories: What's Current?

Efficacy and Tolerability of Adjunct Perampanel Based on Number of Antiepileptic Drugs at Baseline and Baseline Predictors of Efficacy: A Phase III Post-Hoc Analysis

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Perampanel, a first-in-class antiepileptic drug (AED), is approved in more than 40 countries, including Europe and the United States, for adjunctive treatment of partial seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures in patients aged 12 years or older with epilepsy, and in Canada for adult patients 18 years of age or older with epilepsy (FYCOMPA Summary of Product Characteristics 2012; FYCOMPA Product Monograph 2013; FYCOMPA US Prescribing Information 2015; Rektor, 2013). Perampanel is a selective, orally active, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist and has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in patients aged ≥12 years with partial seizures in 3 multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III studies, with patients taking stable doses of up to 3 approved AEDs (French et al., 2012; French et al., 2013; Krauss et al., 2012).
Categories: What's Current?

Circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing pro-inflammatory cytokines in a cohort of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy patients with Hippocampal Sclerosis

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, which consists of recurrent seizures that affect 0.8-1% of the world population (Vezzani et al., 2011). Nearly 90% of patients with epilepsy are found in developing areas (Fabene et al., 2013). This higher prevalence in developing nations is attributed to an increased chance to suffer pro-epileptogenic events such as head trauma, stroke, viral infection, febrile seizures, status epilepticus occurring either in infancy or during lifetime (Herman, 2002).
Categories: What's Current?

Sleep-wake pattern, chronotype and seizures in Patients with epilepsy

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Sleep is an important physiologic process that helps in the recovery of brain or physical damage. Maintaining normal sleep is necessary for physical and mental health (Chae, 2007). There is a reciprocal interaction between sleep and epilepsy; epilepsy may disrupt sleep, and sleep disorders can impair seizure control (Bazil, 2003; Hofstra and De Weerd, 2009). The prevalence of sleep disturbance was reportedly two-fold higher in epilepsy, as compared to normal control (38.6 vs. 18.0%) (De Weerd et al., 2004).
Categories: What's Current?

Antiepileptic Drug Use and Epileptic Seizures in Nursing Home Residents in the Province of Pavia, Italy: A Reappraisal 12 Years After a First Survey

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
The prevalence of epilepsy in nursing home elderly residents is higher than in the general population (de la Court et al., 1996, Olafsson et al., 2005; Schachter et al., 1998). The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in this setting is also greater than in community dwelling elderly people, and varies from 4 to 17% in surveys conducted in Europe and North America, with considerable differences across studies in patterns of AED use (Leppik et al., 2012; Leppik and Birnbaum, 2010; Tallis et al., 2002).
Categories: What's Current?

Pharmacological Outcomes In Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy: Support For Sodium Valproate

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is one of the most frequently diagnosed idiopathic generalized (genetic) epilepsy syndromes (IGES) in teenagers with a prevalence of around 18% of IGES and 5-10% of all epilepsies [1]. It is characterised by myoclonic jerks, tonic-clonic seizures and, on occasion, generalized absences [2]. JME has a slight female predominance, with a peak age of onset between 12 and 18 years. Around 30% of patients show photoparoxysmal responses on a surface electroencephalogram (EEG).
Categories: What's Current?

Spatiotemporal mapping of interictal epileptiform discharges in human absence epilepsy: A MEG study

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/16/2015 - 00:00
The recurrent spontaneous seizures typical for various forms of absence epilepsy, commonly but not exclusively seen in children between 4 and 12 years (Loiseau et al., 2002), are still classified as generalized (Berg and Plioplys, 2012), although it is questioned whether there are fundamental differences between generalized and focal types of epilepsy (Lüders et al., 2009; Seneviratne et al., 2012; van Luijtelaar et al., 2014).
Categories: What's Current?

Widespread Neuronal Injury In A Model Of Cholinergic Status Epilepticus In Postnatal Day 7 Rat Pups

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Status Epilepticus (SE) is common in neonates and infants, and is associated with neuronal injury and adverse developmental outcomes. However, the role of SE in this injury is uncertain. Until now, we have lacked an animal model in which seizures result in neuronal injury in rodent models at ages below postnatal day 12 (P12) unless seizures are combined with inflammatory stressors.
Categories: What's Current?

Compensatory reduction of Ca3.1 expression in thalamocortical neurons of juvenile rats of WAG/Rij model of absence epilepsy

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Absence seizure is a specific form of epilepsy, which is semiologically characterized by behavioral arrest and loss of consciousness. The absence is provoked by generalized synchronous neuronal activity, manifested on EEG as spike-wave discharges (SWD) (Crunelli and Leresche, 2002). One of the key features in SWD generation is the abnormalities in function of low voltage-activated (LVA) or T-type calcium channels (Cav3) expressed by thalamic neurons (Cheong and Shin, 2013). It was shown that the overexpression of the Cav3.1-channel isoform in mice leads to characteristic absence phenotype (Ernst et al., 2009).
Categories: What's Current?

A reduced susceptibility to chemoconvulsant stimulation in adenylyl cyclase 8 knockout mice

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Two ubiquitous messengers, Ca2+ and cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), play an extremely important role in neuronal activity. Direct link between Ca2+ and cAMP signaling is essential for neuronal activity, such as neurotransmitter release, learning memory, and synaptic development (Ferguson et al., 2004). Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the synthesis of cAMP. It is known that there are nine membrane-bound mammalian ACs (AC1-9) in the brain(Defer et al., 2000). Four ACs (AC1, AC5, AC6 and AC8) are under regulation of physiological concentrations of Ca2+, providing a crucial link between the Ca2+ and cAMP-signaling pathways (Cooper et al., 1995).
Categories: What's Current?

The pervasive reduction of GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition of principal neurons in the hippocampus during status epilepticus

Epilepsy Research Journal - Thu, 11/12/2015 - 00:00
Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency characterized by a prolonged, self-sustaining seizure that can result in death or neurological sequelae. There is general agreement that the genesis and maintenance of SE is, in part, the result of rapid modifications in GABA-mediated inhibition that includes changes in the surface expression of the postsynaptic receptor population (Goodkin & Kapur, 2009).
Categories: What's Current?

Anticonvulsant Efficacy of Melatonin in an Experimental Model of Hyperthermic Febrile Seizures

Epilepsy Research Journal - Tue, 11/10/2015 - 00:00
Melatonin (MT) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland that can pass through all morphophysiological barriers in the body due to its lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics which, in turn, allow it to easily infiltrate intracellular spaces and the cell nucleus (Vermeulen et al., 1993). In addition to its effects on the ophthalmic, cardiovascular, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrinological systems (Dubocovich et al., 2003), the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of MT have been investigated by several studies (Manev et al., 1996).
Categories: What's Current?

Network pharmacology for antiepileptogenesis: tolerability of multitargeted drug combinations in nonepileptic vs. post-status epilepticus mice

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/09/2015 - 00:00
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases and often (∼40%) a consequence of brain insults, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke (Löscher et al., 2013). It is widely believed that there is a seizure-free, pre-epileptic state, termed the “latent period”, between brain injury and the onset of epilepsy, during which a cascade of complex brain alterations gradually mediates the process of “epileptogenesis” (Pitkänen and Engel, 2014). This latent period may offer a therapeutic window to interfere with epileptogenesis, resulting in modification or even prevention of epilepsy (Löscher and Brandt, 2010; Pitkänen and Lukasiuk, 2011).
Categories: What's Current?

The progressive changes of filamentous actin cytoskeleton in the hippocampal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/09/2015 - 00:00
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of the human epilepsies, and it results from an initial precipitating event, such as febrile seizures, cerebral infection, traumatic brain injury or stroke (Cendes et al., 1993; Engel, 2001; Pernot et al., 2011). The survivors of the primary insults often develop secondary epileptic seizures after a silent period of at least 3 months and sometimes up to 20 years (Yang et al., 2010b).
Categories: What's Current?

Inhibition of Adenosine Metabolism Induces Changes in Post-ictal Depression, Respiration, and Mortality in Genetically Epilepsy Prone Rats

Epilepsy Research Journal - Mon, 11/09/2015 - 00:00
Patients with epilepsy are at a higher risk of mortality as compared to the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of mortality in refractory epileptic patients, with an estimated risk of 35% over a patient's lifetime (Massey et al., 2014) and occurs in 8-17% of epileptic patients (Nobili et al., 2011). Studies in epilepsy monitoring units suggest potential roles of multiple mechanisms including respiratory, cardiac and cerebral dysfunctions in causing SUDEP (Ryvlin et al., 2013).
Categories: What's Current?

Forebrain-independent generation of hyperthermic convulsions in infant rats

Epilepsia - Sat, 11/07/2015 - 03:03
Summary

Febrile seizures are the most common type of convulsive events in children. It is generally assumed that the generalization of these seizures is a result of brainstem invasion by the initial limbic seizure activity. Using precollicular transection in 13-day-old rats to isolate the forebrain from the brainstem, we demonstrate that the forebrain is not required for generation of tonic–clonic convulsions induced by hyperthermia or kainate. Compared with sham-operated littermate controls, latency to onset of convulsions in both models was significantly shorter in pups that had undergone precollicular transection, indicating suppression of the brainstem seizure network by the forebrain in the intact animal. We have shown previously that febrile seizures are precipitated by hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis. Here, we show that triggering of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation and consequent convulsions in transected animals are blocked by diazepam. The present data suggest that the role of endogenous brainstem activity in triggering tonic–clonic seizures should be re-evaluated in standard experimental models of limbic seizures. Our work sheds new light on the mechanisms that generate febrile seizures in children and, therefore, on how they might be treated.

Categories: What's Current?

Fly method is epilepsy's ray of light

Medical News Today - Fri, 11/06/2015 - 08:00
Professor Richard Baines and Dr Carlo Giachello used a genetically-altered fruit fly to show that when nervous system activity is suppressed by shining yellow light through its embryo, it will not go...
Categories: What's Current?

Fly method is epilepsy's ray of light

Science Daily - Thu, 11/05/2015 - 14:13
A revolutionary new research approach has for the first time shown that epilepsy could be preventable. However, the technique developed and tested over three-years will not benefit individuals who already have epilepsy, scientists say.
Categories: What's Current?

The role of SLC2A1 mutations in myoclonic astatic epilepsy and absence epilepsy, and the estimated frequency of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome

Epilepsia - Thu, 11/05/2015 - 07:00
Summary

The first mutations identified in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) protein of the blood–brain barrier, were associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. Recently, dominant SLC2A1 mutations were found in rare autosomal dominant families with various forms of epilepsy including early onset absence epilepsy (EOAE), myoclonic astatic epilepsy (MAE), and genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Our study aimed to investigate the possible role of SLC2A1 in various forms of epilepsy including MAE and absence epilepsy with early onset. We also aimed to estimate the frequency of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome in the Danish population. One hundred twenty patients with MAE, 50 patients with absence epilepsy, and 37 patients with unselected epilepsies, intellectual disability (ID), and/or various movement disorders were screened for mutations in SLC2A1. Mutations in SLC2A1 were detected in 5 (10%) of 50 patients with absence epilepsy, and in one (2.7%) of 37 patient with unselected epilepsies, ID, and/or various movement disorders. None of the 120 MAE patients harbored SLC2A1 mutations. We estimated the frequency of SLC2A1 mutations in the Danish population to be approximately 1:83,000. Our study confirmed the role of SLC2A1 mutations in absence epilepsy with early onset. However, our study failed to support the notion that SLC2A1 aberrations are a cause of MAE without associated features such as movement disorders.

Categories: What's Current?

Pages