Epilepsy Research Journal
Epilepsy Research RSS feed. Epilepsy Research provides for publication of high quality articles in both basic and clinical epilepsy research, with a special emphasis on translational research that ultimately relates to epilepsy as a human condition. The journal is intended to provide a forum for reporting the best and most rigorous epilepsy research from all disciplines ranging from biophysics and molecular biology to epidemiological and psychosocial research. As such the journal will publish original papers relevant to epilepsy from any scientific discipline and also studies of a multidisciplinary nature. Clinical and experimental research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches to the study of epilepsy and its treatment are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant clinical or experimental relevance, and interest to a multidisciplinary audience in the broad arena of epilepsy. Review articles focused on any topic of epilepsy research will also be considered, but only if they present an exceptionally clear synthesis of current knowledge and future directions of a research area, based on a critical assessment of the available data or on hypotheses that are likely to stimulate more critical thinking and further advances in an area of epilepsy research.Benefits to authorsWe also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support pages: http://support.elsevier.com
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Many epidemiological studies have found the prevalence of depression and anxiety to be higher in people with epilepsy (PWE) than in those without epilepsy (Kwon and Park, 2014). Comorbid anxiety in PWE has been highlighted because of its negative impact on quality of life (QOL), which has been shown to be equal to that of depression(Johnson et al., 2004; Kanner et al., 2010; Kwon and Park, 2013). The prevalence of anxiety in adult PWE ranges from 11% to 50%, depending on the population investigated and the anxiety measure instrument used (Munger Clary, 2014).
Temporal lobe volume predicts Wada memory test performance in patients with mesial temporal sclerosis
Verbal memory decline is one of the major concerns associated with surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), especially after dominant anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL). Accurate prediction of memory decline prior to ATL is challenging. The Wada test (also known as the intracarotid amobarbital procedure) was originally developed to determine hemispheric language dominance in prospective ATL candidates to prevent significant language disturbances after surgery (Wada and Rasmussen, 2007). Subsequently, the test was adopted for memory assessment before resective surgery (Milner and Rasmussen, 1962).
Levetiracetam extended release for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures: A long-term, open-label follow-up study
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an established second-generation antiepileptic drug (AED). An immediate-release (IR) formulation of LEV was approved in 1999 by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures (POS) in adults with epilepsy. The efficacy and tolerability of LEV IR in this population was demonstrated in three multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, involving more than 900 patients (Ben-Menachem and Falter, 2000; Cereghino et al., 2000; Shorvon et al., 2000).
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting approximately 50 million people worldwide (WHO, 2012). Over 1000 mutations identified in voltage-gated sodium channel genes result in several human epilepsy syndromes (Meisler et al., 2010). Often, individuals with the same mutation can exhibit strikingly different clinical severity. This suggests that the effect of the primary mutation is influenced by other factors, which may include genetic modifiers.
Verbal memory and verbal fluency tasks used for language localization and lateralization during magnetoencephalography
The first line of treatment for epilepsy is pharmacotherapy (Killgore et al., 1999). However, about 30% of patients have medically intractable epilepsy (Kwan and Brodie, 2000), in which case surgery is often considered to remove the epileptogenic zone. Surgery can eliminate or significantly decrease seizures in 50% to 90% of cases (Smith, 2001) and is most often performed in the temporal and frontal lobes.
Efficacy and Tolerability of Adjunct Perampanel Based on Number of Antiepileptic Drugs at Baseline and Baseline Predictors of Efficacy: A Phase III Post-Hoc Analysis
Perampanel, a first-in-class antiepileptic drug (AED), is approved in more than 40 countries, including Europe and the United States, for adjunctive treatment of partial seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures in patients aged 12 years or older with epilepsy, and in Canada for adult patients 18 years of age or older with epilepsy (FYCOMPA Summary of Product Characteristics 2012; FYCOMPA Product Monograph 2013; FYCOMPA US Prescribing Information 2015; Rektor, 2013). Perampanel is a selective, orally active, noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist and has demonstrated efficacy and tolerability in patients aged ≥12 years with partial seizures in 3 multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III studies, with patients taking stable doses of up to 3 approved AEDs (French et al., 2012; French et al., 2013; Krauss et al., 2012).
Circulating CD4 and CD8 T cells expressing pro-inflammatory cytokines in a cohort of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy patients with Hippocampal Sclerosis
Epilepsy is the third most common chronic brain disorder, which consists of recurrent seizures that affect 0.8-1% of the world population (Vezzani et al., 2011). Nearly 90% of patients with epilepsy are found in developing areas (Fabene et al., 2013). This higher prevalence in developing nations is attributed to an increased chance to suffer pro-epileptogenic events such as head trauma, stroke, viral infection, febrile seizures, status epilepticus occurring either in infancy or during lifetime (Herman, 2002).
Sleep is an important physiologic process that helps in the recovery of brain or physical damage. Maintaining normal sleep is necessary for physical and mental health (Chae, 2007). There is a reciprocal interaction between sleep and epilepsy; epilepsy may disrupt sleep, and sleep disorders can impair seizure control (Bazil, 2003; Hofstra and De Weerd, 2009). The prevalence of sleep disturbance was reportedly two-fold higher in epilepsy, as compared to normal control (38.6 vs. 18.0%) (De Weerd et al., 2004).
Antiepileptic Drug Use and Epileptic Seizures in Nursing Home Residents in the Province of Pavia, Italy: A Reappraisal 12 Years After a First Survey
The prevalence of epilepsy in nursing home elderly residents is higher than in the general population (de la Court et al., 1996, Olafsson et al., 2005; Schachter et al., 1998). The use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in this setting is also greater than in community dwelling elderly people, and varies from 4 to 17% in surveys conducted in Europe and North America, with considerable differences across studies in patterns of AED use (Leppik et al., 2012; Leppik and Birnbaum, 2010; Tallis et al., 2002).
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is one of the most frequently diagnosed idiopathic generalized (genetic) epilepsy syndromes (IGES) in teenagers with a prevalence of around 18% of IGES and 5-10% of all epilepsies . It is characterised by myoclonic jerks, tonic-clonic seizures and, on occasion, generalized absences . JME has a slight female predominance, with a peak age of onset between 12 and 18 years. Around 30% of patients show photoparoxysmal responses on a surface electroencephalogram (EEG).
The recurrent spontaneous seizures typical for various forms of absence epilepsy, commonly but not exclusively seen in children between 4 and 12 years (Loiseau et al., 2002), are still classified as generalized (Berg and Plioplys, 2012), although it is questioned whether there are fundamental differences between generalized and focal types of epilepsy (Lüders et al., 2009; Seneviratne et al., 2012; van Luijtelaar et al., 2014).
Status Epilepticus (SE) is common in neonates and infants, and is associated with neuronal injury and adverse developmental outcomes. However, the role of SE in this injury is uncertain. Until now, we have lacked an animal model in which seizures result in neuronal injury in rodent models at ages below postnatal day 12 (P12) unless seizures are combined with inflammatory stressors.
Compensatory reduction of Ca3.1 expression in thalamocortical neurons of juvenile rats of WAG/Rij model of absence epilepsy
Absence seizure is a specific form of epilepsy, which is semiologically characterized by behavioral arrest and loss of consciousness. The absence is provoked by generalized synchronous neuronal activity, manifested on EEG as spike-wave discharges (SWD) (Crunelli and Leresche, 2002). One of the key features in SWD generation is the abnormalities in function of low voltage-activated (LVA) or T-type calcium channels (Cav3) expressed by thalamic neurons (Cheong and Shin, 2013). It was shown that the overexpression of the Cav3.1-channel isoform in mice leads to characteristic absence phenotype (Ernst et al., 2009).
Two ubiquitous messengers, Ca2+ and cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate), play an extremely important role in neuronal activity. Direct link between Ca2+ and cAMP signaling is essential for neuronal activity, such as neurotransmitter release, learning memory, and synaptic development (Ferguson et al., 2004). Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) catalyze the synthesis of cAMP. It is known that there are nine membrane-bound mammalian ACs (AC1-9) in the brain(Defer et al., 2000). Four ACs (AC1, AC5, AC6 and AC8) are under regulation of physiological concentrations of Ca2+, providing a crucial link between the Ca2+ and cAMP-signaling pathways (Cooper et al., 1995).
The pervasive reduction of GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition of principal neurons in the hippocampus during status epilepticus
Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency characterized by a prolonged, self-sustaining seizure that can result in death or neurological sequelae. There is general agreement that the genesis and maintenance of SE is, in part, the result of rapid modifications in GABA-mediated inhibition that includes changes in the surface expression of the postsynaptic receptor population (Goodkin & Kapur, 2009).
Melatonin (MT) is a neurohormone produced in the pineal gland that can pass through all morphophysiological barriers in the body due to its lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics which, in turn, allow it to easily infiltrate intracellular spaces and the cell nucleus (Vermeulen et al., 1993). In addition to its effects on the ophthalmic, cardiovascular, neuroimmunological, and neuroendocrinological systems (Dubocovich et al., 2003), the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of MT have been investigated by several studies (Manev et al., 1996).
Network pharmacology for antiepileptogenesis: tolerability of multitargeted drug combinations in nonepileptic vs. post-status epilepticus mice
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases and often (∼40%) a consequence of brain insults, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke (Löscher et al., 2013). It is widely believed that there is a seizure-free, pre-epileptic state, termed the “latent period”, between brain injury and the onset of epilepsy, during which a cascade of complex brain alterations gradually mediates the process of “epileptogenesis” (Pitkänen and Engel, 2014). This latent period may offer a therapeutic window to interfere with epileptogenesis, resulting in modification or even prevention of epilepsy (Löscher and Brandt, 2010; Pitkänen and Lukasiuk, 2011).
The progressive changes of filamentous actin cytoskeleton in the hippocampal neurons after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of the human epilepsies, and it results from an initial precipitating event, such as febrile seizures, cerebral infection, traumatic brain injury or stroke (Cendes et al., 1993; Engel, 2001; Pernot et al., 2011). The survivors of the primary insults often develop secondary epileptic seizures after a silent period of at least 3 months and sometimes up to 20 years (Yang et al., 2010b).
Inhibition of Adenosine Metabolism Induces Changes in Post-ictal Depression, Respiration, and Mortality in Genetically Epilepsy Prone Rats
Patients with epilepsy are at a higher risk of mortality as compared to the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of mortality in refractory epileptic patients, with an estimated risk of 35% over a patient's lifetime (Massey et al., 2014) and occurs in 8-17% of epileptic patients (Nobili et al., 2011). Studies in epilepsy monitoring units suggest potential roles of multiple mechanisms including respiratory, cardiac and cerebral dysfunctions in causing SUDEP (Ryvlin et al., 2013).
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy in adults, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common cause of refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, which requires surgical treatment (Berg, 2008). Conventional MRI (cMRI) revealed a structural abnormality in the hippocampus and other brain regions of mTLE-HS patients due to hippocampal sclerosis (Wieser, 2004), and this structural damage has been reported to be associated with the duration of the disease and memory impairments (Alessio et al., 2004; Morgan et al., 2015).