Epilepsy Research Journal
Epilepsy Research RSS feed. Epilepsy Research provides for publication of high quality articles in both basic and clinical epilepsy research, with a special emphasis on translational research that ultimately relates to epilepsy as a human condition. The journal is intended to provide a forum for reporting the best and most rigorous epilepsy research from all disciplines ranging from biophysics and molecular biology to epidemiological and psychosocial research. As such the journal will publish original papers relevant to epilepsy from any scientific discipline and also studies of a multidisciplinary nature. Clinical and experimental research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches to the study of epilepsy and its treatment are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant clinical or experimental relevance, and interest to a multidisciplinary audience in the broad arena of epilepsy. Review articles focused on any topic of epilepsy research will also be considered, but only if they present an exceptionally clear synthesis of current knowledge and future directions of a research area, based on a critical assessment of the available data or on hypotheses that are likely to stimulate more critical thinking and further advances in an area of epilepsy research.Benefits to authorsWe also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support pages: http://support.elsevier.com
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Letter to the Editor:
Infantile spasms (IS) is one of the most common catastrophic epileptic syndromes during childhood. This syndrome consists of a triad of spastic seizures, characteristic electroencephalogram (hypsarrhythmia), and mental retardation. With the development of molecular biology techniques, the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of IS is increasingly being recognized. To date, mutations in ARX, CDKL5, MUNC18-1 (also known as STXBP1), SLC25A22, MAGI2, TSC1, TSC2, and others have been connected to IS or early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (Kitamura et al., 2002; Marsh et al., 2009; Molinari et al., 2005; Saitsu et al., 2008).
N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR2B Subunit Involved in Promoting Depression-like Behaviours in Lithium Chloride-Pilocarpine Chronic Rat Epilepsy Model
Depressive disorders are very common in patients with epilepsy. According to the data from a recent Meta analysis, patients with epilepsy had an overall prevalence of active depression of 23.1% and lifetime depression of 13% (Fiest et al., 2013). Previous clinical data also indicated that the prevalence of depression in epilepsy was higher than most of other neurological and non-nervous diseases, and depression had significantly negative influence on quality of life in patients with epilepsy (Cramer et al., 2003; Ettinger et al., 2004).
I would like to thank Kaiboriboon and colleagues for their manuscript entitled “Epilepsy Surgery in the United States: Analysis of Data from the National Association of Epilepsy Centers,” recently published in Epilepsy Research (Kaiboriboon et al., 2015). The authors utilized data from the National Association of Epilepsy Centers (NAEC) to examine recent trends in epilepsy surgery in the United States. Interestingly, while the number of admissions to Epilepsy Monitoring Units at these centers doubled between 2008 and 2012, the rate of epilepsy surgery actually declined over that time period.
Do HLA-A markers predict skin-reactions from aromatic antiepileptic drugs in a Norwegian population? A case control study
Aromatic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are frequently associated with cutaneous adverse reactions (cADRs) occurring within the first weeks of exposure. Their clinical spectrum varies from mild maculopapular to serious bullous reactions (Pirmohamed, 2012). The frequency of cADRs decreases with increasing severity, but all usually require discontinuation of the culprit drug. In a retrospective survey of consecutive patients from mid-Norway, we found cADRs from aromatic AEDs in up to 8-10% of exposures (Alvestad et al., 2007).
There are several types of infantile seizures. The first description of benign infantile convulsion (BIC) was reported in Japan by Fukuyama et al. (1963). In 1987, Watanabe et al. proposed the term of “benign partial epilepsy in infancy” (BPEI) (1987). They reported nine infants who showed clusters of seizures that consisted of motion arrest, decreased responsiveness, and automatisms. These infants showed normal developmental, and the seizures were easily controlled with antiepileptic drugs. Four of the patients had a family history of the same symptoms.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1.7 million Americans sustain traumatic brain injury (TBI) each year. Of these individuals, 52,000 die, 275,000 are hospitalized, and 1,365 million are treated and released from an emergency department (Faul et al., 2010). An estimated 1.1% of the U.S. civilian population lives with a long-term disability from TBI (Zaloshnja et al., 2008). One of the sequelae of TBI is the development of posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE). In a population-based study, the cumulative incidence of PTE in the first three years after hospitalization per 100 persons was 4.4 for mild TBI, 7.6 for moderate TBI, and 13.6 for severe TBI (Ferguson et al., 2010).
Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus in Mice: A comparison of spectral analysis of electroencephalogram and behavioral grading using the Racine scale
Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) is a widely used seizure model in mice, and the Racine scale has been used to index seizure intensity. The goal of this study was to analyze electroencephalogram (EEG) quantitatively using fast Fourier transformation (FFT) and statistically evaluate the correlation of electrographic seizures with convulsive behaviors. Simultaneous EEG and video recordings in male mice in a mixed genetic background were conducted and pilocarpine was administered intraperitoneally to induce seizures.
Evaluation of multiple putative risk alleles within the 15q13.3 region for Genetic Generalized Epilepsy
CHRNA7, at chromosome 15q13.3, encodes the alpha7 subunit of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and has long been a candidate gene for neuropsychiatric disorders. Linkage analyses and neurophysiological studies initially associated the CHRNA7 region with schizophrenia (Freedman et al., 1997). Definitive evidence for involvement of this region in epilepsy and neuropsychiatric disorders emerged with robust demonstration of association between the 15q13.3 microdeletion (del15q13.3) and intellectual disability (ID) in 2008 (Sharp et al., 2008); then subsequently with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia and genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) (Helbig et al., 2009; Miller et al., 2009; Shinawi et al., 2009; Stefansson et al., 2009).
One of the most dreaded consequences of epileptic seizures is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). This phenomenon is defined as the sudden and unexpected, non-traumatic and non-drowning death in a patient with epileptic seizures (Nashef et al., 2012). The estimated incidence of SUDEP for all people with epilepsy is 0.35-1.8 per 1,000 patient-years (Ficker et al., 1998; Hughes, 2009). However, the prevalence of SUDEP in drug resistant epilepsy is much higher, ranging from 3-9/1,000 patient-years (Tomson et al., 2005).
During the diagnostic workup of epilepsy, the identification of major structural abnormalities, including mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), is critical for guiding clinical decision-making. In the past two decades, more advanced imaging acquisition and analysis methods have been used to detect more subtle morphological abnormalities in epilepsy patients. However, a majority of these studies identify a group-level difference, which has little clinical utility. Therefore, diagnosis of MTS and other structural abnormalities continues to be based on visual inspection by trained neuroradiologists.
Volumetric and shape analysis of hippocampal subfields in unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal atrophy
Neuronal loss and gliosis of the hippocampus are the histopathological hallmarks of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), the most common cause of intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Typical MRI features of HS include reduced hippocampal volume and increased T2 signal intensity (Malmgren and Thom, 2012). Quantitative measurement of hippocampal volume using high-resolution MRI provides histologic and clinical information in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with HS (MTLE). Indeed, smaller hippocampal volume on MRI did correlate well with lower neuronal cell density in the pathologic hippocampus (Malmgren and Thom, 2012; Morita and Cendes, 2010).
Children (10–12 years age) of women with epilepsy have lower intelligence, attention and memory: Observations from a prospective cohort case control study
About 50% women with epilepsy (WWE) are in reproductive age group and most of them need to continue anti-epileptic drug (AED) therapy in order to be seizure free. There is growing body of evidence that antenatal exposure to AEDs particularly valproate (VPA) increases the risk for poorer cognitive abilities in children (Adab et al., 2004; Adab et al., 2001; Banach et al., 2010; Gaily et al., 2004; Kantola-Sorsa et al., 2007; Meador et al., 2009; Thomas et al., 2007; Vinten et al., 2009).
Analysis of pooled phase III trials of adjunctive perampanel for epilepsy: Impact of mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics on clinical outcomes
Current antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) fail to confer seizure freedom in up to one-third of patients with epilepsy (Brodie et al., 2012), warranting the development of new agents. New AEDs are initially evaluated as adjunctive treatments that are added to existing regimens of AEDs, which may vary in number and pharmacologic characteristics. When introducing a new AED, it is important to consider the potential for interactions with the AEDs that a patient is already taking, as they may affect treatment response.
Effects of CYP3A4/5 and ABCB1 genetic polymorphisms on carbamazepine metabolism and transport in Chinese patients with epilepsy treated with carbamazepine in monotherapy and bitherapy
Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological disorders, which affects approximately 65 million people worldwide (Thurman et al., 2011). In China, about 9 million individuals have epilepsy (Wang et al., 2003). Currently, anti-seizure medications are the primary tools for the control of epileptic seizures. In the clinical practice, individual variabilities of anti-seizure medication plasma concentrations have been observed in patients with epilepsy. It seems that genetic polymorphisms play a considerable role in the patients’ variant response to anti-seizure medications, such as carbamazepine(CBZ) (Puranik et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2012).
Huperzine A prophylaxis against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats is associated with increased cortical inhibition
Huperzine A (HupA; (1R,9S,13E)-1-Amino-13-ethylidene-11-methyl-6-azatricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]trideca-2(7),3,10-trien-5-one) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. Relevant to potential applications to CNS diseases, including acquired epilepsy syndromes, HupA shows anti-inflammatory (Wang et al., 2008), neuroprotective (Ma et al., 2013; Wang and Tang, 2005), anti-nociceptive properties (Bialer et al., 2015; Park et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2013), and is protective against soman-induced toxicity and seizures (Wang et al., 2011).
fMRI brain response during sentence reading comprehension in children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most common form of idiopathic childhood focal epilepsy (Kramer et al., 1998; Wirrell & Hamiwka, 2006). BECTS is typically an age-dependant syndrome, with onset ranging from three to 13 years and spontaneous remission by mid-adolescence (Panayiotopoulos et al., 2008). This epilepsy is characterized by focal, brief, and infrequent seizures, mostly occurring during sleep and the sleep-wake transition (Fejerman, 2010). The epileptogenic zone in BECTS involves neuronal networks within the Rolandic cortex surrounding the central fissure bilaterally (Bouma et al., 1997).
Protein-caloric dietary restriction inhibits mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of TLE without significantly altering seizure phenotype
Given the known effects of undernutrition over protein synthesis, we promoted neonatal undernutrition to evaluate its effect over the neuroplasticity induced by the pilocarpine model of epilepsy and also over spontaneous seizure expression. A well nourished group (WN), fed ad libitum rat chow diet, and an undernourished group (UN), fed 60% of the amount of diet consumed by WN group, were submitted to status epilepticus (SE) through pilocarpine injection at 45 days of age. Thereafter, animals were behaviorally monitored for 6hours daily to quantify seizures.
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and it is estimated that 1% of the general population suffer from this disease (Noronha et al., 2007; Wright et al., 2000). Social and economic burden of the disease besides the reduced quality of life in seizure patients had evoked the scientific research in the last decades. Though epilepsy is considered a channelopathy and pharmacological agents such as valproate or phenytoin have been approved by FDA for the treatment of the disease, serious side-effects and interactions limit the usage of these agents in treatment of patients (Johannessen and Landmark, 2010).
There has been substantial interest in the impact of health policy reform on quality of care and patient outcomes (Kaplan and Porter, 2011; McWilliams et al., 2013)(Hesdorffer and Begley, 2013). Policy and research alike have aimed to develop evidence-based methods of consistently high quality care for all patients with a given medical condition (Fitzsimons et al., 2012; Kaplan and Porter, 2011)(Harden et al., 2009).