Epilepsy Research Journal
Epilepsy Research RSS feed. Epilepsy Research provides for publication of high quality articles in both basic and clinical epilepsy research, with a special emphasis on translational research that ultimately relates to epilepsy as a human condition. The journal is intended to provide a forum for reporting the best and most rigorous epilepsy research from all disciplines ranging from biophysics and molecular biology to epidemiological and psychosocial research. As such the journal will publish original papers relevant to epilepsy from any scientific discipline and also studies of a multidisciplinary nature. Clinical and experimental research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches to the study of epilepsy and its treatment are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant clinical or experimental relevance, and interest to a multidisciplinary audience in the broad arena of epilepsy. Review articles focused on any topic of epilepsy research will also be considered, but only if they present an exceptionally clear synthesis of current knowledge and future directions of a research area, based on a critical assessment of the available data or on hypotheses that are likely to stimulate more critical thinking and further advances in an area of epilepsy research.Benefits to authorsWe also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support pages: http://support.elsevier.com
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Huperzine A prophylaxis against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in rats is associated with increased cortical inhibition
Huperzine A (HupA; (1R,9S,13E)-1-Amino-13-ethylidene-11-methyl-6-azatricyclo[7.3.1.02,7]trideca-2(7),3,10-trien-5-one) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene alkaloid compound found in the firmoss Huperzia serrata. Relevant to potential applications to CNS diseases, including acquired epilepsy syndromes, HupA shows anti-inflammatory (Wang et al., 2008), neuroprotective (Ma et al., 2013; Wang and Tang, 2005), anti-nociceptive properties (Bialer et al., 2015; Park et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2013), and is protective against soman-induced toxicity and seizures (Wang et al., 2011).
fMRI brain response during sentence reading comprehension in children with benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most common form of idiopathic childhood focal epilepsy (Kramer et al., 1998; Wirrell & Hamiwka, 2006). BECTS is typically an age-dependant syndrome, with onset ranging from three to 13 years and spontaneous remission by mid-adolescence (Panayiotopoulos et al., 2008). This epilepsy is characterized by focal, brief, and infrequent seizures, mostly occurring during sleep and the sleep-wake transition (Fejerman, 2010). The epileptogenic zone in BECTS involves neuronal networks within the Rolandic cortex surrounding the central fissure bilaterally (Bouma et al., 1997).
Protein-caloric dietary restriction inhibits mossy fiber sprouting in the pilocarpine model of TLE without significantly altering seizure phenotype
Given the known effects of undernutrition over protein synthesis, we promoted neonatal undernutrition to evaluate its effect over the neuroplasticity induced by the pilocarpine model of epilepsy and also over spontaneous seizure expression. A well nourished group (WN), fed ad libitum rat chow diet, and an undernourished group (UN), fed 60% of the amount of diet consumed by WN group, were submitted to status epilepticus (SE) through pilocarpine injection at 45 days of age. Thereafter, animals were behaviorally monitored for 6hours daily to quantify seizures.
Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders and it is estimated that 1% of the general population suffer from this disease (Noronha et al., 2007; Wright et al., 2000). Social and economic burden of the disease besides the reduced quality of life in seizure patients had evoked the scientific research in the last decades. Though epilepsy is considered a channelopathy and pharmacological agents such as valproate or phenytoin have been approved by FDA for the treatment of the disease, serious side-effects and interactions limit the usage of these agents in treatment of patients (Johannessen and Landmark, 2010).
There has been substantial interest in the impact of health policy reform on quality of care and patient outcomes (Kaplan and Porter, 2011; McWilliams et al., 2013)(Hesdorffer and Begley, 2013). Policy and research alike have aimed to develop evidence-based methods of consistently high quality care for all patients with a given medical condition (Fitzsimons et al., 2012; Kaplan and Porter, 2011)(Harden et al., 2009).
Enhanced endogenous activation of NMDA receptors in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal tissues from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: a mechanism of hyper excitation
The most common form of drug refractory temporal lobe epilepsy is mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE; Shinnar, 2003), where the hippocampus is involved in seizure generation (Wieser, 2004). Seizure generation in patients with MTLE can be mediated by multiple ways, but one common principle that pertains is the interruption of processes that normally create a balance between excitation and inhibition (Banerjee et al., 2014). This concept of balance is useful model for understanding the mechanisms that leads to generation of hyper excitable neuronal network in patients with MTLE.
Seletracetam (SEL) along with brivaracetam and levetiracetam (LEV, KeppraTM) belongs to a class of compounds that have antiepileptic properties. LEV is frequently prescribed for seizure prevention in patients with partial onset and generalized epilepsy (Kaminski et al., 2009;Wright et al., 2013;Dionisio et al., 2013;Glauser et al., 2013). Despite the broad use of LEV, its detailed mechanism(s) of action remains unknown. All of these compounds bind to SV2A, a synaptic vesicle associated protein, but SEL and brivaracetam bind at least one log unit more strongly than LEV (Lynch et al., 2004;Frycia et al., 2010;Gillard et al., 2011).
β-hydroxybutyrate attenuates NMDA-induced spasms in rats with evidence of neuronal stabilization on MR spectroscopy
Infantile spasms (IS) are a developmental epileptic encephalopathy characterized by distinctive spasms in infancy, interictal hypsarrhythmia, and progressive mental retardation (Pellock et al., 2010). There is no definite cure for IS, and this condition does not respond to any classic antiepileptic drugs. Although adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vigabatrin, and glucocorticoids show some efficacy in the treatment of IS, a different approach is needed to better reduce the number and incidence of spasms and improve the mental outcomes in patients with IS (Riikonen, 2014).
Epilepsy is a major public health concern, directly affecting an estimated 50 million people worldwide, and involving an additional 500 million people as family members and caregivers (Kale, 2002). Of the 50 million people with epilepsy, around 80% reside in resource-poor countries (Radhakrishnan, 2009).
Short Communication: Flourishing Among Adolescents with Epilepsy: Correlates and Comparison to Peers
Epilepsy impacts approximately 1% of children and adolescents in the United States (US; Russ et al., 2012). Adolescents with epilepsy (AWE) are at risk for a number of negative psychosocial outcomes. AWE experience increased rates of psychological disorders, such as depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Rodenburg et al., 2005a; Russ et al., 2012), and approximately 40% of AWE have been diagnosed with a mental health condition (Wagner, Wilson et al., 2015).
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) are highly epileptogenic lesions frequently accounting for pharmaco-resistant focal epilepsy (Fauser et al., 2006). Although MRI techniques have improved significantly over the past years, many FCD still remain undetected by conventional MRI visual analysis. About 10–20% of cases with FCD type II according to the classification of Palmini and Lüders and the recent classification proposal of Blümcke and colleagues (Palmini et al., 2004; Blümcke et al., 2011) are reported to be MRI-negative by conventional visual analysis (Wagner et al., 2011).
Missense mutations in sodium channel and predispose children to encephalopathy with severe febrile seizures
During the acute phase of febrile diseases, some children develop repetitive or prolonged seizures, followed by severe impairment of consciousness. Several distinct syndromes have been described and characterized: fever-induced refractory epileptic encephalopathy in school-aged children (FIRES), idiopathic hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (IHHS), and acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD). As a generic term to encompass these conditions, Nabbout proposed the term acute encephalopathy with inflammation-mediated status epilepticus (AEIMSE) (Nabbout et al., 2011).
Improving the inter-rater agreement of hypsarrhythmia using a simplified EEG grading scale for children with infantile spasms
Infantile spasms are seizures that are typical of West syndrome – an electroclinical syndrome with infantile spasms, developmental stagnation or regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) evidence of an epileptic encephalopathy (Pellock et al., 2010). The classic EEG signature of the epileptic encephalopathy in West syndrome was first described by Gibbs and Gibbs in 1952 who called it “hypsar[r]hythmia” (Gibbs and Gibbs, 1952). Although remission of hypsarrhythmia has been viewed as an important clinical and research outcome measure, recent evidence suggests that the inter-rater reliability of hypsarrhythmia is poor (Hussain et al., 2015).
Etiologic features and utilization of antiepileptic drugs in people with chronic epilepsy in China: Report from the Epilepsy Cohort of Huashan Hospital (ECoH)
Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological and social consequences of this condition(Fisher et al., 2005). As a chronic disorder, epilepsy has a multifaceted adverse impact on not merely the person with the condition, but also their family and even the society. Except for being exposed to the danger of accidents and injuries by the unpredictable epileptic seizure(Wirrell, 2006), people with epilepsy still suffer from higher premature mortality(Neligan et al., 2011), adverse drug reactions to antiepileptic drugs(AEDs)(Perucca and Gilliam, 2012), and other somatic comorbidities(Gaitatzis et al., 2012).
Epilepsy Surgery In The United States: Analysis Of Data From The National Association Of Epilepsy Centers
The benefit of epilepsy surgery, particularly temporal lobectomy has been well documented (Wiebe et al., 2001; Engel et al., 2012) and published estimates have emphasized the under-utilization of this important treatment option (Lhatoo et al., 2003; Berg et al., 2009). However, rather than the expected increase in surgical numbers effected by the impact of peer reviewed literature (Wiebe et al., 2001), physician education and the establishment of guidelines and practice parameters (Engel et al., 2003), surveys in the UK (Neligan et al., 2013) and Sweden (Kumlien & Mattsson, 2010) suggest that the number of resective surgeries have in fact declined over the past decade.
Intravenous Anesthesia in Treatment of Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus: Characteristics and Outcomes
Status epilepticus (SE), the continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting more than five minutes or recurrent seizures without recovery between seizures(Lowenstein and Alldredge, 1998), is a life threatening emergency that requires immediate treatment. The incidence of SE varies between 9.9-41.0 per 100,000 population(Coeytaux et al., 2000; DeLorenzo et al., 1996; Hesdorffer et al., 1998) with a mortality rate of as high as 22%(DeLorenzo et al., 1996; Rossetti et al., 2006).
Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) changes in new onset versus chronic benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS): A resting state fMRI study
Benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is characterized by abnormal nocturnal epileptiform spike activity originating in the rolandic or sensorimotor cortex, without a significant lesion, typically observed in children between 7-10 years of age. Although seizure prognosis is good in children with BECTS, growing evidence suggests that BECTS is associated with abnormalities in cognition, specifically language and language dependent abilities, IQ, visuomotor abilities, and reading disorders/dyslexia.(Nicolai et al., 2006)
Employment rate of people with epilepsy (PWE) was reported to be variable in different populations (De Boer, 2005) but no global comparison study of the employment rate between the continents and countries has been conducted. Studies on employment in epilepsy utilized different definitions of employment rate and study populations, making direct comparison difficult.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have long been recognized as an important risk factor for osteoporosis-related fragility fractures.(Cummings et al., 1995) People with epilepsy (PWE) already have an increased fracture risk related to seizure-associated trauma and to falls associated with the motor and cerebellar side-effects of AEDs;(Beghi, 2009; Zaccara et al., 2008) however, there also seems to be a bone fragility associated with certain AEDs that confers an increased fracture risk independent of these considerations.(Cummings et al., 1995; Souverein et al., 2006a)
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet well-established as treatment option for drug resistant childhood epilepsies (Freeman et al., 2007).