Epilepsy Research Journal
Epilepsy Research RSS feed. Epilepsy Research provides for publication of high quality articles in both basic and clinical epilepsy research, with a special emphasis on translational research that ultimately relates to epilepsy as a human condition. The journal is intended to provide a forum for reporting the best and most rigorous epilepsy research from all disciplines ranging from biophysics and molecular biology to epidemiological and psychosocial research. As such the journal will publish original papers relevant to epilepsy from any scientific discipline and also studies of a multidisciplinary nature. Clinical and experimental research papers adopting fresh conceptual approaches to the study of epilepsy and its treatment are encouraged. The overriding criteria for publication are novelty, significant clinical or experimental relevance, and interest to a multidisciplinary audience in the broad arena of epilepsy. Review articles focused on any topic of epilepsy research will also be considered, but only if they present an exceptionally clear synthesis of current knowledge and future directions of a research area, based on a critical assessment of the available data or on hypotheses that are likely to stimulate more critical thinking and further advances in an area of epilepsy research.Benefits to authorsWe also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more. Please click here for more information on our author services.Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our support pages: http://support.elsevier.com
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Improving the inter-rater agreement of hypsarrhythmia using a simplified EEG grading scale for children with infantile spasms
Infantile spasms are seizures that are typical of West syndrome – an electroclinical syndrome with infantile spasms, developmental stagnation or regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) evidence of an epileptic encephalopathy (Pellock et al., 2010). The classic EEG signature of the epileptic encephalopathy in West syndrome was first described by Gibbs and Gibbs in 1952 who called it “hypsar[r]hythmia” (Gibbs and Gibbs, 1952). Although remission of hypsarrhythmia has been viewed as an important clinical and research outcome measure, recent evidence suggests that the inter-rater reliability of hypsarrhythmia is poor (Hussain et al., 2015).
Etiologic features and utilization of antiepileptic drugs in people with chronic epilepsy in China: Report from the Epilepsy Cohort of Huashan Hospital (ECoH)
Epilepsy is a disorder characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by neurobiologic, cognitive, psychological and social consequences of this condition(Fisher et al., 2005). As a chronic disorder, epilepsy has a multifaceted adverse impact on not merely the person with the condition, but also their family and even the society. Except for being exposed to the danger of accidents and injuries by the unpredictable epileptic seizure(Wirrell, 2006), people with epilepsy still suffer from higher premature mortality(Neligan et al., 2011), adverse drug reactions to antiepileptic drugs(AEDs)(Perucca and Gilliam, 2012), and other somatic comorbidities(Gaitatzis et al., 2012).
Epilepsy Surgery In The United States: Analysis Of Data From The National Association Of Epilepsy Centers
The benefit of epilepsy surgery, particularly temporal lobectomy has been well documented (Wiebe et al., 2001; Engel et al., 2012) and published estimates have emphasized the under-utilization of this important treatment option (Lhatoo et al., 2003; Berg et al., 2009). However, rather than the expected increase in surgical numbers effected by the impact of peer reviewed literature (Wiebe et al., 2001), physician education and the establishment of guidelines and practice parameters (Engel et al., 2003), surveys in the UK (Neligan et al., 2013) and Sweden (Kumlien & Mattsson, 2010) suggest that the number of resective surgeries have in fact declined over the past decade.
Intravenous Anesthesia in Treatment of Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus: Characteristics and Outcomes
Status epilepticus (SE), the continuous clinical and/or electrographic seizure activity lasting more than five minutes or recurrent seizures without recovery between seizures(Lowenstein and Alldredge, 1998), is a life threatening emergency that requires immediate treatment. The incidence of SE varies between 9.9-41.0 per 100,000 population(Coeytaux et al., 2000; DeLorenzo et al., 1996; Hesdorffer et al., 1998) with a mortality rate of as high as 22%(DeLorenzo et al., 1996; Rossetti et al., 2006).
Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) changes in new onset versus chronic benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS): A resting state fMRI study
Benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is characterized by abnormal nocturnal epileptiform spike activity originating in the rolandic or sensorimotor cortex, without a significant lesion, typically observed in children between 7-10 years of age. Although seizure prognosis is good in children with BECTS, growing evidence suggests that BECTS is associated with abnormalities in cognition, specifically language and language dependent abilities, IQ, visuomotor abilities, and reading disorders/dyslexia.(Nicolai et al., 2006)
Employment rate of people with epilepsy (PWE) was reported to be variable in different populations (De Boer, 2005) but no global comparison study of the employment rate between the continents and countries has been conducted. Studies on employment in epilepsy utilized different definitions of employment rate and study populations, making direct comparison difficult.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have long been recognized as an important risk factor for osteoporosis-related fragility fractures.(Cummings et al., 1995) People with epilepsy (PWE) already have an increased fracture risk related to seizure-associated trauma and to falls associated with the motor and cerebellar side-effects of AEDs;(Beghi, 2009; Zaccara et al., 2008) however, there also seems to be a bone fragility associated with certain AEDs that confers an increased fracture risk independent of these considerations.(Cummings et al., 1995; Souverein et al., 2006a)
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and adequate-protein diet well-established as treatment option for drug resistant childhood epilepsies (Freeman et al., 2007).
In each and every cell the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl-CoA and functions as a gateway to the oxidative metabolism of carbohydrate within mitochondria. This reaction interlinks glycolysis, citric acid cycle and the respiratory chain. Thereby enabling the stepwise transfer of electrons from reducing equivalents (NADH and FADH2) to molecular oxygen and subsequent synthesis of ATP (figure 1A) (Margineantu et al., 2002).
Neuroimaging observations linking neurocysticercosis and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) is one of the most common forms of human focal epilepsy (Engel, 2001; Tatum WO 4th., 2012; Cendes et al., 2014). Causes of MTLE-HS are multifactorial and related with different forms of acute brain injury, generically denominated as the initial precipitating injury (IPI) (Mathern et al., 1995, 2002). Seizures or diverse types of brain insults would lead to hippocampal cell death, hippocampal circuit reorganization, and MTLE-HS.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Focal Cortical Dysplasia: Comparison of 3D and 2D Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Sequences at 3 Tesla
Focal cortical dysplasia type II (FCD II), is a frequent cause of focal medically intractable epilepsy in surgery series (Bien et al., 2013;Fauser et al., 2009;Frater et al., 2000). FCD belongs to the complex of malformations of cortical development (Barkovich et al., 2005), characterized pathologically by the presence of dysmorphic neurons in type IIa lesions and additionally by balloon cells in type IIb (Blumcke et al., 2011;Palmini et al., 2004;Palmini and Luders, 2002). The identification of a FCD on MR imaging enables the patient to take a surgical option, which yields rate of seizure-freedom between 58-80% (Bien et al., 2009;Urbach et al., 2002;Wagner et al., 2011).
Epilepsy and hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by glutamate decarboxylase inhibitors in awake rats
GABA is the most important inhibitory neurotransmitter of mammalian CNS. It is synthesized from glutamate by the pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC 22.214.171.124). Early studies on the kinetics and regulation by PLP of GAD activity suggested the existence of two forms of the enzyme with different affinity for the coenzyme and cellular localization (Bayón et al., 1977a,b). These two forms were later identified and characterized as GAD65 and GAD67, according to their molecular weight, with different functions related to PLP affinity (Erlander et al., 1991; Esclapez et al., 1994; Kaufman et al., 1991), and studies with the isolated GAD65 and GAD67 isoforms confirmed that free PLP activates GAD65, located mainly in nerve endings, by the conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme form, whereas the cytosolic GAD67 behaves as an holoenzyme with bound PLP (Battaglioli et al., 2003; Kaufman et al., 1991; Martin et al., 1991).
ASSESSING LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ESLICARBAZEPINE ACETATE ON LIPID METABOLISM PROFILE, SODIUM VALUES AND LIVER FUNCTION TESTS
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) indicated for the treatment of focal onset seizures with or without tonic-clonic bilateral evolution (Gil-Nagel et al., 2013). After intake, ESL is extensively (<95%) hydrolyzed to eslicarbazepine (Almeida and Soares-da-Silva, 2007). The primary metabolic differences between ESL and carbamazepine (CBZ) are that with ESL, no epoxide is generated, no autoinduction of metabolism occurs, and the ratio of conversion to oxcarbazepine (OXC) is notably low.
Functional MRI of Neuronal Activation in Epilepsy Patients with Malformations of Cortical Development
Approximately thirty percent of patients with focal epilepsy do not respond to drug treatment (Liu, 2000). These patients experience a greatly reduced quality of life, as they are prone to frequent uncontrolled seizures. Surgical treatment is a reasonable option for those suffering from focal intractable epilepsy provided the seizure focus is localized and safe to resect (Mathern, 2009). Epileptic seizures, derived from uncontrolled electrical discharges predominantly in the cortex, are increasingly associated with malformations of cortical development (MCD) (Kuzniecky and Barkovich, 1996, Kuzniecky and Barkovich, 2001, Barkovich and Raybaud, 2004, Kuzniecky, 2006, Gungor et al., 2007a, Gungor et al., 2007b, Leventer et al., 2008).
Seizure Semiology in Males with Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures is Associated with Somatic Complaints
Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal events that mimic epileptic seizures (ES) but have psychological rather than neurological underpinnings and may be treatable with behavioral therapies (Dickinson and Looper, 2012). Although a careful clinical history and consideration of the behavioral components of the events (i.e. semiology) may increase confidence of a PNES diagnosis, video electroencephalography (vEEG) is the “gold standard” (Thomas et al., 2013). Given the complexity of this condition, psychological and neuropsychological testing may be coupled with vEEG (Dickinson and Looper, 2012; Walker, 2000).
Epilepsy affects more than 50 million people worldwide, or roughly 1% of the population. Although most patients can be adequately treated with antiepileptic drugs, more than 20% of patients continue to have seizures that are refractory to medical therapy and many additional patients experience adverse side effects(Hauser and Hesdorfer, 1990). Hence, there is a continued need for the development of novel anti-epileptic therapies. Recently, a new type of light-sensitive molecule, or “opsin”, has been developed which combines light-sensitivity with the modern genetic toolbox to control and monitor brain activity on a range of spatial resolutions from individual neurons to complex neural circuits (Boyden et al., 2005).
Response to “Association of IDH1/2 mutation with preoperative seizure in low-grade gliomas: how strong is the evidence?”
Wei Yan: email@example.com
De novo SCN8A missense mutations have been identified as a rare dominant cause of epileptic encephalopathy. We described a person with epileptic encephalopathy associated with a mosaic deletion of the SCN8A gene.
Scalp High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) in absence epilepsy: An Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based approach
Electroencephalograph (EEG) for clinical interpretation has for a long time been restricted to the Berger's frequency band (1 – 25Hz). However, improvement in the acquisition systems with improved analogue to digital conversion (ADC) has allowed researchers to look beyond the standard frequency bands. This has resulted in the evolution of the “fullband EEG (FbEEG)” which encompasses both the narrow band and wide band EEG (beyond the conventional 50 – 70Hz)(Vanhatalo et al., 2005). FbEEG includes infra slow frequency oscillations (0.01-0.1Hz), sub delta frequency analysis (0.1 - 0.9Hz), Conventional Frequency Analysis (CFA: 1-70Hz), high frequency oscillations (80-500/600Hz), ultra high frequency oscillations (>600-1000Hz)(Andrade-Valenca et al., 2011; Niedermeyer, 2005; Rodin et al., 2008; Rodin and Funke, 2006; Vanhatalo et al., 2005; Zafeiriou and Vargiami, 2012)(Andrade-Valenca et al., 2011; Niedermeyer, 2005; Rodin et al., 2008; Rodin and Funke, 2006; Vanhatalo et al., 2005; Zafeiriou and Vargiami, 2012).
Subjective Sleep Disturbance in Epilepsy Patients at an Outpatient Clinic: A Questionnaire-Based Study on Prevalence
The interaction between epilepsy and sleep is complex (Bazil, 2000; Bazil and Walczak, 2003). Sleep may influence seizures in a variety of ways. In general, seizures and interictal epileptiform discharges are facilitated during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and suppressed during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep (Bazil, 2000; Bazil and Walczak, 2003).